This report documents the results of the first comprehensive lighting audit of the residential sector. To date, not a great deal is known about Australia’s lighting energy consumption, or the lighting technologies that make up the stock of lights. This survey provides quantitative data concerning lighting and provides the first sound basis for estimating the efficiency potential of residential lighting in Australia. It gives a comprehensive picture of what types of lighting technology householders like to install in different rooms, as well as the power of lamps they like to use. This data will help policy makers better understand not only the installed residential lighting stock, but also householder attitudes and user behaviour, to allow program improvements and enable better targeting of resources.This intrusive survey covered 150 houses in Queensland (Brisbane), New South Wales (Newcastle and Sydney), and Victoria (Melbourne and Gippsland). Fieldwork was undertaken in the period October 2010 to March 2011. Around 7200 individual lamps were documented in the 2010 lighting survey, with houses found to have an average of 48 lamps, each with an average rated power of 42 Watts.The most common lamp type in a house was found to be halogen – 25% as low voltage lamps and 9% as mains voltage lamps. Compact fluorescent lamps were the next most common lighting technology, with a 30% share. The other major lighting technology was found to be incandescent lamps (22% share). Linear fluorescent lamps accounted for 9% of all lamps. These findings paint a stark picture, with relatively inefficient technologies contributing to the majority share of the lighting stock found in the average house.In overall terms, it would appear that there is the potential to increase total lighting efficiency by at least three fold in many houses that currently have lower efficiency systems. Less efficient homes have an overall average efficacy of around 15 Lumens/Watt (especially larger homes) while many of the most efficient homes have already achieved a practical overall average efficacy of nearly 60 Lumens/Watt.