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Legislative framework

Understand the legislation behind the program.

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Greenhouse and Energy Minimum Standards Act

The Greenhouse and Energy Minimum Standards Act 2012 (GEMS Act) is Australia's national framework for appliance and equipment energy efficiency. It is the legislation behind Australia’s product registration and labelling requirements.

The GEMS Act aims to promote the development and adoption of appliances and equipment that use less energy and produce less greenhouse gases.

The GEMS Regulator

The Greenhouse and Energy Minimum Standards Regulator (GEMS Regulator) is responsible for administering the GEMS Act in Australia.

The GEMS Regulator is based in the Australian Government Department of Climate Change, Energy, the Environment and Water.

The GEMS Regulator logo

GEMS Determinations

Greenhouse and Energy Minimum Standards Determinations (GEMS Determinations) underpin the GEMS Act.

Determinations set out what products are covered by energy efficiency regulations, and establish the requirements that must be met by those products before they can be registered and supplied in Australia.

Determinations specify whether a product:

  • needs to meet Minimum Energy Performance Standards 
  • needs to display an Energy Rating Label
  • needs to meet any other requirements.

Minimum Energy Performance Standards

A GEMS Determination may specify that a product must meet a set of Minimum Energy Performance Standards. These specify the minimum level of energy performance that products must meet or exceed before they can be registered and supplied in Australia.

Minimum Energy Performance Standards can be specified in the Determination or refer to separately published standards that the product must comply with.

Energy Rating Labels

A GEMS Determination may specify that a product must display an Energy Rating Label. Energy Rating Labels help the consumer make informed choices about the energy efficiency of appliances they buy.

The Energy Rating Label will display a star rating and the estimated annual energy consumption value in kilowatt hours for the product. The Determination will outline the specifications of the Energy Rating Label for the product, including details on the size, content and display of the label.

Some products may have additional labelling requirements. These will be outlined in the GEMS Determination for the product.

How do I meet regulatory requirements?

Review the relevant Determination and information on this website to understand what requirements apply to your product.

If your product is covered by a Determination, you need to register it and meet the relevant labelling requirements and Minimum Energy Performance Standards.

The GEMS Regulator monitors and enforces compliance with the requirements.

Understand the requirements

Supporting legislation

How it works in New Zealand 

In New Zealand, the Energy Efficiency (Energy Using Products) Regulations 2022 underpin the program. The Regulations are administered by the Energy Efficiency and Conservation Authority.

Products registered in Australia do not need to be registered in New Zealand to be sold. The product just needs to meet all the relevant New Zealand requirements, unless the Trans-Tasman Mutual Recognition Agreement applies.


Visit the Energy Efficiency and Conservation Authority website
Map of New Zealand
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